In December 2017, the EPA approved revisions to the Louisiana State Implementation Plan (“SIP”) addressing regional haze. Neither environmental groups—Sierra Club and National Parks Conservation Association—nor affected utility companies—Entergy and Cleco—are satisfied with the EPA’s rule, and they are now petitioning the Fifth Circuit as intervenors on behalf of the EPA. Both sides filed briefs on October 30, 2018.
By way of background, Congress added regional haze provisions to the Clean Air Act (“CAA”) in 1977. The Act requires pollution sources that emit any air pollutant that may reasonably be anticipated to cause or contribute to visibility impairment to operate with the best available retrofit technology (“BART”).
In evaluating BART, the CAA requires states to balance cost with 1) the energy and non-air quality environmental impacts of compliance; 2) existing pollution control technology in use at the source; 3) the source’s remaining useful life; and 4) the visibility improvements that may reasonably be anticipated to result from the use of such technology.
The EPA issued BART Guidelines in 2005. The Guidelines help states determine whether BART applies to a particular source of pollution. In June 2008, Louisiana submitted its first Regional Haze SIP. The EPA did not approve the plan because it relied on the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which was judicially invalidated before the EPA ruled on the plan. The EPA also found deficiencies in BART determinations for four non-electrical generating units.
Louisiana submitted a revised SIP in July 2017, which the EPA approved in December 2017. The revised SIP was based on analysis conducted by the EPA and Entergy. The Fifth Circuit litigation primarily addresses the BART for Entergy’s Nelson power plant and Cleco’s Brame Energy Center, which both emit large amounts of sulfur dioxide.