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Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits employers from discriminating on the bases of race, color, national origin, religion, and sex. Federal circuits are currently split on whether discrimination based on sexual orientation falls within the scope of discrimination based on sex (and therefore within the scope of Title VII’s prohibition). On February 26, 2018, the en banc Second Circuit Court of Appeals found in Zarda v. Altitude Express that Title VII’s prohibition of discrimination based on sex does in fact cover discrimination based on sexual orientation, overturning its own precedent holding from almost twenty years prior. This result signals increased viability for challenges advocating a broader interpretation of Title VII to remedy sexual orientation discrimination, as well as a potential pushback by the Jeff Sessions-helmed Justice Department as these challenges arise.

Zarda involved a skydiving instructor (Zarda) who alleged that his employer (Altitude Express) fired him in response to a customer telling them of his sexual orientation. The U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York granted summary judgment in favor of Altitude Express on Zarda’s claim, finding that Title VII failed to cover sexual orientation discrimination, and that Zarda failed to establish the type of gender-stereotyping claim covered by the act. The District Court considered itself bound by the Second Circuit’s 17-year-old decision in Simonton v. Runyon, and held that, absent an en banc review by the Second Circuit reversing Simonton, Second Circuit precedent required dismissal. Zarda appealed the summary judgment to the Second Circuit, which granted an en banc review. Writing the majority opinion, Judge Robert Katzmann wrote in the majority opinion that sexual orientation discrimination necessarily involves sex discrimination, as it means discrimination against someone based on their own sex in relation to the sex of those to whom they are sexually attracted. Katzmann noted that although Congress had not sought to address sexual orientation discrimination in Title VII, laws like Title VII “often go beyond the principal evil to cover reasonably comparable evils,” which in this case included sexual orientation discrimination. The Second Circuit thus reversed Simonson, vacated the summary judgment, and remanded the Title VII claim to the District Court.

By allowing such a claim to proceed under Title VII, the Second Circuit joined the Seventh Circuit, which found last April that Title VII covers sexual orientation discrimination in its decision in Hively v. Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana. Hively concerned an adjunct professor who alleged that her employer passed her up for full employment because she was openly gay. Hively argued that she faced discriminated for failing to conform to female stereotypes, and because she publicly identified as a lesbian. The Seventh Circuit reversed and remanded the summary judgment in favor of her employer. It found that “discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is a form of sex discrimination” and that “a person who alleges that she experienced employment discrimination on the basis of her sexual orientation has put forth
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CCG_Seal_260x2001On June 13, 2017, the Illinois First District Appellate Court issued an unpublished opinion holding that a Cook County judge erred in denying a forum non conveniens motion where essentially the entire case rests not in Plaintiffs’ chosen forum of Cook County, but in Winnebago County.[1]

The doctrine of forum non conveniens is premised on “considerations of fundamental fairness and sensible and effective judicial administration.”[2] It assumes that more than one forum possesses the power to hear a case, but permits a court to decline jurisdiction where another forum can “better serve the convenience of the parties and the ends of justice.”[3]  In determining whether to accept or decline jurisdiction, the court must balance private interest factors affecting the convenience of the litigants and public interest factors affecting the administration of the courts.[4]

The private interest factors the court considers include the convenience of the parties; the relative ease of access to testimonial and documentary evidence; and other practical matters, which tend to make a trial “easy, expeditious, and inexpensive.”   The public interest factors include the interest in deciding controversies locally; the unfairness of imposing trial expense and the burden of jury duty on residents of a forum with little connection to the litigation; and adding litigation to already congested court dockets.

In cases such as Rohl, where the primary issue is one of product liability, Illinois courts have found that the location of the accident is less significant and largely supplanted by a more general interest in resolving a claim concerning an allegedly defective product.[5] Also, because a jury visit to the accident site is generally unnecessary, the significance of this factor is further diminished in product liability claims.[6] On appeal, forum non conveniens decisions are evaluated using an abuse of discretion standard in Illinois.  Therefore, it is somewhat of an understatement to say that it is difficult to overturn a trial court’s decision regarding a forum non conveniens motion in Illinois, particularly in a product liability case.

Here, Plaintiffs Irvin and Marlene Rohl sued several defendants in Cook County alleging that asbestos exposure led to Mr. Rohl’s fatal lung cancer.  Certain defendants filed motions to transfer the matter from Cook County to Winnebago County under the doctrine of forum non conveniens.  The Cook County trial judge denied the motions, citing Mr. Rohl’s attendance at a trade school in Cook County in the late 1940s where, according to the Court’s ruling, Mr. Rohl was exposed to asbestos.  The appellate court initially denied the petition for review of the trial court’s denial of the forum non conveniens motion.  However, in December 2016, the Illinois Supreme Court entered a supervisory order directing the appellate court to grant the petition and resolve the forum non conveniens motion on its merits.

The complaint, filed in January 2016, alleged that Mr. Rohl was exposed to asbestos through his employment as a laborer, heavy-equipment operator, and mechanic from 1950 until 1999.  Specifically, Plaintiffs
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